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In some places, a large number of good fields do not grow grain. What about eating?

2022-02-02 17:37:49 Sogou wechat

At the central economic work conference held not long ago , *** . He pointed out that :“ In the past, grain was transferred from the south to the north , It is now the time to transfer grain from the north to the south . In some places, a large number of good fields do not grow grain , Or build a farm , Or plant flowers and fruit trees , So what about grain ?

The general secretary is concerned about “ Agriculture, rural areas and farmers ” Important issues in this field —— Arable land, “ Non grain ”.
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Picture source : The Internet

One

In reality , Part of the terrain is flat 、 Fertile soil area , Large area planting of cash crops , The sown area of grain decreased significantly . There is media coverage , Some farmers plant apples on basic farmland 、 Pear 、 Kiwifruit and other fruit trees , Cultivated land does not produce grain for several years or even decades ; Other places are close to rivers and lakes , The villagers dug the contracted cultivated land into pits and ponds , Engage in aquaculture .

Why don't you grow grain in a lot of good farmland ? The answer is not difficult to understand : Compared with food crops , Grow cash crops “ More money ”.

In research , The author has encountered many problems “ Grain returning after economic reform ” Example .

such as , A village in Central Province 2 10000 mu of cultivated land , It was once a famous grain producing village . But from the last century 90 From mid-age , Local farmers began planting watermelon one after another . To 2012 year , Watermelon planting area is more than half of the village's cultivated land , Become worthy of the name “ Watermelon professional village ”. For this transformation , The villagers did not hide their words :“ The income of one mu of watermelon land is worth two mu of grain .”

A similar phenomenon also exists in the relatively developed eastern provinces . In a town in the East 4 10000 mu of cultivated land , Originally mainly used for rice cultivation .2013 After year , The town began to turn to seedling planting on a large scale , The area of cultivated land occupied has exceeded 80%. A nursery stock dealer said :“ The profit of one mu of seedlings can almost exceed 1 Ten thousand yuan .”

In addition to pursuing economic benefits , In some places, because the land is fragmented , Ditches are in disrepair all year round , Difficulties in promoting agricultural mechanization , Farmers simply give up growing grain , Turn to planting fruit trees or directly abandon the wasteland . In the view of many farmers , Self contracted land , Deal with it as you like .
 
Two

“ Grain returning after economic reform ” Some local governments' neglect of grain production has been exposed .

How to optimize and adjust the agricultural planting structure ? In some places, there are deviations in understanding , The optimization and adjustment is simply understood as reducing grain production . We can see that the income from growing grain is low , We will guide farmers to develop flower planting on a large scale , Make watermelon 、 Strawberry and other fruit industries ; Some places are keen on building modern pastoral complexes , It often covers thousands of acres , Or look good for face , Renting cultivated land to plant flowers and trees , Man made “ Scenery ”, The result is , Many arable land is no longer planted with food crops , It has become a display field of all kinds of political achievements projects .

Under the promotion of some governments and market incentives , Capital to the countryside has also exacerbated cultivated land “ Non grain ”. Objectively , Industrial and commercial capital can bring capital to the countryside 、 Technology and advanced business model , Accelerate the construction of modern agriculture . However , Land accumulation 、 After building a big family , Some operators change the land use without authorization , Build a greenhouse on the cultivated land 、 Construction of photovoltaic power station , Damage and pollution to cultivated land .

With the upgrading of the dietary structure of urban and rural residents in China , The market demand for fruits and other cash crops has increased , Urbanization has also spawned a large number of nursery crop markets , This has become some farmers and places “ Grain returning after economic reform ”、 The realistic motivation of developing characteristic agriculture .

But the problem is , Chinese basis 14 The reality of more than 100 million people , Draw out 18 100 million mu of farmland red line , On average, only 1 More acres , These cultivated lands are the guarantee of food security “ The bottom line ”, No encroachment 、 The damage shall not 、 You can't retreat . If you are blind “ Grain returning after economic reform ”, Let the arable land “ Non grain ” The trend spread , It will affect the national food security , We must attach great importance to .
 
3、 ... and

How to better strictly control cultivated land “ Non grain ” Well ?2017 year , The State Council issued relevant guidance , Put forward “ Establish grain production functional areas ”, Types of crops planted on cultivated land in restricted areas . In practice , Some local explorations have formed a series of experience worthy of reference .

such as , The author found that , The local government demarcates the functional area of grain production to specific plots , And remote sensing by satellite 、 UAV and other technologies for monitoring . Township cadres said :“ The current technology is very powerful , Farmers can monitor every brick and tile , If there is a suspected problem in the area , Villages and towns need to explain the situation to their superiors .”

Strictly control cultivated land “ Non grain ”, The key is to mobilize farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain , Let farmers grow grain with sweetness and hope . Some places have introduced policies , Give food producers more subsidies , And make it up to the farmers who really grow grain . for example , There is a subsidy for planting one season of rice in a certain place 350 element / mu ; Grow double cropping rice , Subsidies are available 700 element / mu . Plus all kinds of production subsidies , The total subsidy can reach per mu 1000 yuan , It has stabilized farmers' expectation of grain income .

The feasible way is to gradually implement the planning of grain production functional areas , Appropriately encourage grain farmers , The newly increased subsidies are inclined to grain farmers , Help solve the problems of infrastructure construction and socialized services .

meanwhile , See also , Prevent cultivated land “ Non grain ” You can't just grow food , Instead, we should give priority to the limited cultivated land for food production , While stabilizing grain production , Moderate development of cotton 、 oil 、 sugar 、 Vegetables and other cash crops . Facing the characteristic planting industry formed in some places , Not to mention “ One size fits all ” Chop down fruit trees 、 Shovel seedling , Need gradual guidance .

At the central economic work conference , *** :“ The more food there is to eat , The more you want to think about when there is no food . I repeat , The job of the Chinese people should always be firmly in their own hands . Never let others get stuck in our necks on the basic survival problem of eating .
 
writing / Xia Zhuzhi ( China Rural Governance Research Center, Wuhan University   associate professor )
edit / Zhong Qi

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