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The glory and dream of "Chinese McDonald's"

2022-05-07 12:46:16Zhuang Shuai

 picture source @ Vision China

picture source @ Vision China

writing | Zhuang Shu

The American food industry has experienced a century of development , It has entered a highly mature period, and the large-scale characteristics of downstream food enterprises are obvious , According to Euromonitor International's statistics ,2019 In, the chain rate of American catering industry reached 54.3%.

With the development of chain and the integration of industrial mergers and acquisitions, it has entered the second half of the process , Wide product line distributors stand out , The concentration of the middle and upper reaches of the industry is increasing , end 2020 year , Us food distribution industry CR3 reach 33%.  At present, China's catering industry is still in the early stage of chain , But scale 、 The trend of brand chain has emerged , And as China's catering industry enters “ Capacity expansion + restructuring ” Parallel phase , The development process of American mature market has great reference value for accurately grasping the future of China's catering industry .

The course of American catering chain

The American catering industry has experienced more than a century of development , The industry is relatively mature . According to the American Catering Association , The industry market scale has changed from 1970 Year of 428 Billion dollars to 2020 Year of 8990 Billion dollars , Fifty years CAGR reach 6.28%;2020 The number of employees in the catering industry will reach 1313 ten thousand people , About one tenth of the working population in the United States . 
1920 Years ago , The acceleration of industrialization and urbanization in the United States gave birth to the germination of the catering market .  stay 1865 After the end of the civil war and the abolition of slavery , The United States has ushered in the peak of industrialization , Rapid economic development . 1880 Around the year , The United States ushered in a wave of expatriates , A large number of European expatriates poured into the United States , And drive the rapid increase of urban population density . 19 century 90 years , With the United States GDP Surpassing Britain to become the first in the world , Per capita GDP Second in the world , American people's ability to eat out has increased .

In Urbanization 、 The economy is booming 、 Against the background of rising consumption , The agglomeration effect of American catering industry began to appear , The number of restaurants is increasing rapidly .

During this period , The development of American Railways and highways has ushered in a golden period , To 20 At the beginning of the century , Operate railways and highways to 2000 multiple , It provides convenience for product delivery and dining out . 
1920-2000 year , Baby boomers 、 Quick freezing technology 、 Urbanization drives the volume and price of the catering industry in the United States , The rise of modern catering represented by chain fast food . 

1920 The United States enacted the prohibition of alcohol act , Forcing restaurants to shift their business focus from high profit beverage services to catering services themselves , A large number of middle and low-grade restaurants produce . 

The second world war (1939-1945 year ) After the end ,“ Baby boomers ” Driving rapid population growth ,1946-1964 year , The total number of newborns in the United States has reached 7600 ten thousand people , The increase of the young population has driven the growth of personal food consumption expenditure of American residents as high as 15.17%, Bring large-scale incremental demand for catering . 

meanwhile , The progress of quick-frozen food technology and the improvement of legislation have promoted the improvement of catering supply chain , The popularity of refrigerators and other electrical appliances has also brought good news for food preservation , It has laid the infrastructure foundation for the development of chain fast food industry . 

Under the two-way force of supply and demand , The catering industry has entered a golden period of development with both volume and price , McDonald's 、 KFC 、 urger king 、Wendy And many American fast food giants have established , And through the franchise model 、 Accelerate chain expansion with capital leverage , Seize the U.S. domestic market .  With the intensification of local competition ,20 At the end of the century, American catering enterprises began to seek overseas markets . 

21 Since the beginning of the century , suffer “ High obesity rate + New millennium consumer groups + Internet ” influence , Expansion of catering industry 、 Structural optimization , health 、 The trend of new catering came into being . 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and prevention 2017-2018 Annual survey data , The adult obesity rate in the United States is 42%, The rate of obesity is higher than 9%. With the increasing number of obese and sub-health groups in the United States , Residents' dietary consumption preferences have changed , More pursuit of healthy diet and quality . 

According to the American Catering Association 2019 Annual statistics ,61% Consumers prefer healthy food ,51% Prefer environment-friendly food .  Besides , The gradual growth of millennials and the acceleration of the Internet process , It is also promoting the transformation of consumption habits from offline to online consumption .

Under the influence of the new trend of American catering , With ChipotleMexicanGril、PaneraBread A balanced diet represented by 、 Fast leisure restaurants with safe and healthy ingredients are gradually emerging , It is gradually catching up with and surpassing the position of traditional fast food such as KFC in the hearts of American people . 
Thanks to the catering culture of the United States integrating global characteristics , The chain rate of catering enterprises is at a high level . Influenced by immigrant culture , American catering combines the characteristics of all over the world , because 20 The rise of fast food and the blending of food culture in the 21st century , Easy to standardize hamburgers have become the consensus of American food products , Deeply loved by American consumers . 

According to the 《 American catering Top50》 The report , American catering industry TOP50 The total number of chain stores of the enterprise is up to 158579 individual , among , Hamburgers occupy 22% Share .  According to Euromonitor International Data ,2019 In, the chain rate of American catering industry reached 54.3%, a 2010 Annual promotion 2.4%. 

In recent years , The United States is efficient 、 A streamlined limited service restaurant (LSR) The share of revenue continues to increase , Bars (Bar) The share is stable at 10%. A full-service restaurant is similar to a traditional dinner , Generally, the meal time is long 、 The menu is comprehensive 、 The price of meals is high ; The average meal time in limited service restaurants is short , Per capita consumption is low . 

The subject status of the two is relatively equal ,2019 The proportion of annual quantity is 35.20%、44.59%. From the income side ,LSR After ten years of development, the proportion of income has exceeded FSR, Keep widening the gap . 2020 Under the influence of the epidemic in , The United States LSR Revenue accounts for... Of the total revenue of catering enterprises in the United States 58%, and FSR The proportion of income is only 32%, The share difference has reached its maximum in recent years 16%.
 

American catering industry chain

The early stage (1850-1930): Regional distributors 、 The rise of vertical category distributors . 

19 In the second half of the century , With the budding development of traditional catering , Food distributors in the United States are also beginning to emerge .USFoods It is currently the second largest distributor in the United States , At the beginning of the group , Many of its brands are food suppliers of regional vertical categories ,1883 year ,JohnSexton&Co. establish , It mainly provides raw materials for local coffee and tea shops in Chicago ,Mazo-Lerch The company was founded in 1911 year , Focus on the supply of frozen food and beverages . 

Growth stage (1930-1970): Demand drives supply , Transformation from vertical category distributors to multi category integrated distributors . 

1946 year , Congress passed 《 National School Lunch law 》, The school restaurant became the institutional customer of the earliest food supplier . To 20 century 50 End of the decade , With Mazo-Lerch The food material distributors represented by gradually began to push the distribution business to the development of multiple categories , In addition to the traditional supply of ingredients , Also began to provide porcelain 、 Wine Glass 、 napkin 、 Tablecloth and other products . 

Integration stage (1970- so far ): M & A in the industry has accelerated , Distributors with nationwide wide product lines are booming . 

Catering supply chain construction belongs to the heavy asset management mode , The main links include procurement 、 Storage 、 Central kitchen processing 、 Logistics and other important nodes , It takes a lot of money 、 Human resources 、 Time , therefore , After the basic plate of catering suppliers is firm , Through active mergers and acquisitions 、 Give play to industrial synergy , Quickly integrate the market , To achieve the stability of upstream resources 、 Cost controllable purpose .  for example , American food and beverage supply leader Sysco stay 1970-2008 A total of 145 companies , Average annual completion of 3.8 Start a merger .

U.S. Food and beverage suppliers according to the product coverage 、 Differences in the types of customers served , It can be divided into wide product line suppliers 、 Vertical category suppliers and system suppliers .

among , Wide product line suppliers have a wide range of business 、 A large number of customers 、 A wide range of categories , The market share is increasing year by year , The top three leaders in the industry are suppliers of wide product lines ,1995 year -2010 year , The proportion of wide product lines ranges from 45% Rise to 58%.

Wide product line suppliers provide all-round services and support for downstream catering enterprises , Bring great convenience and quality assurance .

With Sysco For example , For chain catering enterprises in many regions ,Sysco Adopt the way of central management , Provide standardized ingredients , Reduce differences between different regions ; For local catering enterprises ,Sysco Through local operators , Meet customer needs as much as possible , Ensure the breadth of categories . 

Compared with other channels , Customers go through Sysco Of “ "One-stop" work style ” Purchasing reduces the purchasing frequency of downstream customers , At the same time, downstream food enterprises pass Sysco Purchasing can better ensure the quality of food . 

In the application of science and Technology ,Sysco Developed App It can not only make it easy for catering enterprises to place orders , It can also provide customers with price management 、 Additional functions such as data tracking , It can also optimize the distribution route , Ensure timely delivery of goods , Comprehensively improve the service experience of downstream food enterprises .

Sino US benchmarking , Where is the Chinese McDonald's road ?

20 century 70-80 The S is the initial stage of China's catering industry . 1979 year , In the early days of reform and opening up , To solve the problem “ It's hard to eat ” problem , Small and medium-sized restaurants dominated by self-employed businesses have emerged one after another and are gradually accepted by a small number of consumers , Restaurants in this period offered preferential prices 、 Flexible, convenient and affordable services are the main features .  With the development of the economy , Consumers' catering demand has gradually increased ,20 century 90 In the s, the capital invested in catering increased significantly , There has been a surge in catering outlets and industry employees , The number of catering enterprises has expanded rapidly .

At this stage, the international brand KFC 、 McDonald's and other international catering brands are pouring into China , Played a certain “ Catfish effect ”, Forced domestic catering enterprises to improve product quality 、 Brand promotion, supply chain and other multi angle continuous improvement 、 Enhance competitiveness , In the mid-1990s, the rudiment of China's chain operation appeared . 21 Since the 20th century , Local governments “ The pipes suit ” Support the chain operation of catering industry from the perspective of policy , Officially entered the stage of large-scale development , Chain catering enterprises are gradually becoming healthier 、 scale 、 Chain 、 The brand 、 Digital upgrading and development .  With the promotion of urbanization and rapid economic development in China , The catering industry has experienced a period of rapid growth , And in 2019 Before the epidemic in , Once upon a time 4.6 Trillion market size ,14-19 year CAGR super 10%.

Although the demand side remains booming , But compared with mature markets with high chain rate such as the United States and Japan , China's catering supply side is still relatively scattered , Overall, it is still in the primary stage of chain . 

The main reason for the low chain rate of China's catering industry is : 

1) Our country is vast , Area 、 There are great differences in taste , There are eight traditional Chinese cuisines , And famous snacks from all over the world ;

 2) Subject to factors such as technology , Poor standardization of dishes , Highly dependent on the chef , And the commercialization of food materials is low , Labor intensive , Finally, it leads to the low economic efficiency of the restaurant , It is difficult to quickly chain copy ; 

3) In high economic growth 、 In the context of the accelerated pace of life , Consumer concept 、 Tastes change with each passing day , New channels 、 New groups continue to derive new catering trends ; 

4) Due to low downstream barriers 、 Internal competition is fierce , The fault tolerance rate of direct chain operation of food enterprises is low , The elimination rate of the industry is high , According to statistics , The average survival time of catering stores is only 508 God . 

  At present , China's five rings of catering “ Each has its own hidden worries ”, Urgent need to solve .  
Food end , Still mainly through wholesale channels , The efficiency of industrial chain is relatively low , Direct production and direct selling of American model 、 Reducing circulation is one of the better solutions . 

Seasoning end , Due to the complexity and diversity of Chinese Cuisine , The taste requirements for spices are high , This requires catering enterprises to have strong R & D and innovation ability , So as to meet the needs of consumers 、 Changeable taste demand . 

Production end , Because of the big B Customer SKU More , Central kitchen enterprises usually can only dominate in subdivided fields , Want to be big B The whole line of SKU The semi-finished product system is difficult , Central kitchen enterprises continue to expand product categories , More to meet the big B Customer SKU Demand for semi-finished products , Scale effect will lead to cost reduction , At the same time, it solves the problem of small B Customers pay more attention to the cost of cost performance . 

Catering end , Although prefabricated dishes 、 Customized meal adjustment solves the problem of high fixed cost 、 The stability of dish quality , However, there is still some room for cost control of prefabricated dishes and customized meal recipes .  at present , China can perfectly solve all the pain points , Enterprises that have opened up the five ring industrial chain of catering have not yet appeared .  Although the elimination rate of China's catering industry is high , The competition presents a red sea , But the economic base 、 societal trends 、 Policy encouragement and the self evolution of catering enterprises are supporting the catering industry to accelerate the chain .  China's national economic foundation and consumption capacity have been improved , It has built the foundation for the rapid development of chain . 

In the last century 50 years , The American fast food chain industry is growing in per capita GDP achieve 2206 The dollar was born .60 End of the decade , Per capita GDP Growing to 5000 US dollar level , The American catering industry began to enter the era of chain development , Mr. steak (Mr.Steak) And Wendy's hamburger (Wendy’s) The rise of a large number of catering stores with franchise rights represented by . 

By 2021 end of the year , Per capita in our country GDP Continuous 3 Annual super 10000 US dollar level , From the perspective of economic foundation and consumption capacity , The basic conditions for the rapid development of chain have been met .

With the accelerating social rhythm, the compression of meal time and the healthy concept of consumption 、 The rise of branding , The fast food industry dominated by franchising is developing in full swing , According to the data on the official website of meter, many aspects and many aspects ,69% People eat fast food at least once a week ,22% Percent said they ate at least one fast food meal a day .  The improvement of consumers' requirements for dining efficiency and experience , Promote a single category 、 Restaurants with high turnover rate rise rapidly , Nu Skin tea 、 Marinated duck neck 、 Sauerkraut fish, etc , Further promote the chain process .   In the catering industry, food safety problems occur frequently 、 Under the background of high elimination rate of the industry , To further protect people's livelihood 、 Lead the industry to a new stage of development , Local governments “ The pipes suit ” The continuous deepening of reform , For catering chain 、 Provide system for large-scale process / Policy guarantees , Including publicly expressing support for 、 Simplify the administrative process of chain catering 、 Financial support such as rewards and subsidies and regulating supply chain supervision .

The acceleration of digital transformation of catering industry itself and the improvement of supply chain management ability , It's a push “ Thousands of shop time ” The internal foundation of the arrival .  In the process of high chain in the United States , There is no lack of service CRM( User management system )、HCM( Human resource management system )、MA( Marketing automation ) And other general-purpose online enterprise services .

alike , Our country SaaS System 、 Scan and order 、 Take-out food 020 And other digital services , Also through enabling catering enterprises to get through the front-end traffic to obtain 、 Expand store sales radius ; Mid tier internal management 、 Brand building and digital system of back-end supply system and enterprise services , Improve the replication rate and success rate of chain catering enterprises .  According to the China Chain Store Association 《2021 White paper of China's catering industry 》 data , The chain rate of China's catering market has been further improved , from 2018 Year of 12% Quickly ascend to 2020 Year of 15%.

From the distribution of stores , Chain restaurants with a scale of less than 100 account for the highest proportion ,100-500 A chain store of several sizes , And the proportion of the two is 2020 It has shown significant growth in all years , Respectively from the 2018 Year of 3.8% and 4.0% Growth to 2020 Year of 4.7% and 4.4%.

In a 500-1000 Among the catering enterprises with the scale of chain stores , The head brand enterprises of direct marketing mode have started the process of nationalization , And expand against the trend under the influence of the epidemic .  By 2021 year 9 month , The representative of the direct marketing model is the rural base, and the number of Direct stores across the country reaches 569 home , The number of stores of its sub brand Mr. rice 543 home , total 1112 home , Become the first Chinese fast food with more than 1000 Direct stores in China .  The number of catering chain stores above 10000 stores accounts for from 2018 Year of 0.7% Growth to 2020 Year of 1.4%, Double the proportion in three years . 
Compared with the mature catering industry in the United States , The efficiency of catering supply chain in China is low , There is more room for progress .  First , Most supply chain companies only play the role of wholesale 、 Distribution role , Play the role of connecting upstream raw material suppliers and downstream catering enterprises ;  second , Most warehouses 、 R & D and quality inspection are still the responsibility of downstream catering enterprises . From the perspective of Supply , Diversification of Chinese food categories 、 The complexity of the process is far more than that of Western food , It puts forward higher requirements for the standardization of chain restaurant enterprises .

From the perspective of demand , The employment rate of women has been increasing 、 Family structure miniaturization and Z Under the background that generations have gradually become the main force of consumption , There is still room for improvement in dining out demand .

With the continuous chain development of the catering industry , From bottom to top, it promotes the reform of the middle and upper reaches industrial chain , The increment of the new subdivision circuit can be expected .  The American catering industry has a high degree of Standardization , Mainly because its supply chain is more efficient , Details of division of labor in each link 、 Midstream undertakes more standardization work .

Leading supply chain companies SYSCO Etc. from upstream raw material suppliers , After unified processing ( Including research and development , Storage , Quality inspection, etc ), Redistribute and export to downstream catering customers .  In order to improve the scale of supply chain 、 Degree of standardization and economic efficiency , Midstream food processor 、 logistics 、 Food adjustment and other links from scattered single point to combination into a chain , Constitute the supply chain service system . 

among , The midstream prefabricated dishes reduce the complexity of dish processing through the industrialized production of central kitchen , Greatly reduce the processing steps of catering enterprises , Replace rice noodles, etc “ Cost effective ” Garnish , Help speed up meals 、 Increase the peak output value of single store , Finally, promote the stores to reduce costs and improve efficiency , Feedback chain process . 

meanwhile , Customized meal preparation service through R & D cooperation 、 Jointly develop 、 Customized production can help restaurant customers improve the standardization of dishes , Reduce dependence on manpower such as chefs , In recent years , The chain process has fully benefited . 

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