Married middle-aged employees who "can scold freely" are actually better?
If enterprises want to maintain a steady stream of innovation power , Instead of eliminating 35 Stable people over the age of “ the elderly ”, Let's think about how to create an innovative atmosphere with a sense of security inside , Encourage trial and error , such , Whether or not you have a family , Do you have a mortgage to repay , Will not cost too much because of failure 、 The psychological burden is too heavy to avoid innovation . As a manager , It is recommended to incorporate the ideas and feedback of asking employees into daily work , And timely reward those employees with active innovative thinking .
What wakes you up every morning ？ It's a dream ？ Or poverty ？ They each represent the two driving forces that drive our work , Dreams are internal drives , Poverty is an external driving force .
Only a few of the luckiest people can achieve both material abundance and spiritual satisfaction through work . As for those less fortunate , Or take a look at the monthly amount of the bank card , Willingly plunge into 996 even to the extent that 007 The vast ocean , Or even though it doesn't earn much , But deeply attracted by the value attached to the work itself , That is, one of the few idealists in our time .
But some people , Such people may not be a minority , Their work can be called “ Toxic ”, Less money 、 Live more , There is no bright future , The boss doesn't even bother to draw cakes for you , If you're unlucky enough to get such a job , How to continue every day ？
Famous journal of Management 《Academy of Management Journal》2017 A survey was published in , The author tracked a group of blue collar workers at the bottom , They repeat the same work every day , Even if you do well, you can't get a raise , Neither internal drive nor external drive can explain their work motivation .
The author finally found a third kind of drive , He called it “ Family motivation ” (family motivation) . When you have a sense of responsibility for your family , I think it's my duty to take good care of them , You'll care about the job you hate , This is a “ Family motivation ” The beauty and magic of .
Think of one before HR Paragraph , It is proved from another side that “ Family motivation ” The existence of . Don't yell at me 90 After the young people , They will resign immediately , But you can scold those 70 after 80 Later middle-aged people , Especially with mortgage 、 Car loan 、 The ones with the second child .
Since family motivation is so powerful , Are married employees better ？
not long ago , A piece of 《 The occupation of the big head of the house slave king has fallen 》 Widely spread on the Internet . Wang Datou's job sounds tall , As an associate professor in a university in Shanghai , Since I bought a house , Wang Datou has a weakness , It's only 18000 yuan a month , Even if you don't eat or drink , There is still a gap of 2000 yuan from the monthly mortgage repayment . It's not the most terrible , The real fear in his heart is , He found that he could no longer enter his former state at work .
Before buying a house , Wang Datou is very selective in his research , He only does what he is interested in , Enjoy exploring these topics . He will ponder a technical problem for several days , Often jump up in the middle of the night to record the sudden inspiration . Focus on the enjoyment he brings , It's like Xingyun Flowing water , Can lead him into a selfless Little world , A kingdom of freedom where the mind can do whatever it wants , It made him crazy , stop . Compared with this feeling , The tutor's project subsidy brings Xiao Zheng Xing It's not worth mentioning , Even the sense of achievement when the research results are published cannot be compared .
But now , It's OK to be in the lab during the day , Close your eyes at night , Wang Datou thought of 20000 yuan at the beginning of next month , For fear of unexpected surprises in life , Interrupt your normal repayment plan . A little contingency , He's going to spend time , Rack your brains to fill the gap , This made it impossible for him to think about a problem all night , He can't control his thoughts , Often a little thinking is pulled back to reality , He has fewer and fewer good ideas in research .
“ Wang Datou ” Zhang Xin'an is a professor of management at Shanghai Jiaotong University , Although Wang Datou is not himself , But he kept thinking “ Family motivation ” And workplace performance , He also wrote a paper for this purpose 《 Be careful for your family ： Explore the dual effects of family motivation on employee productivity and creativity 》, Also published in 《Academy of Management Journal》 On .
Previous studies generally believed that starting a family played a positive role in promoting one's career development , But Zhang Xin'an's research found that ,“ Family motivation ” Is actually the “ Double-edged sword ”, Do married employees perform better , It depends on how we define “ good ”.
In the sample survey 187 A low-income class 、439 Middle income class and 40 After a high-income class , Zhang Xinan's conclusion is , Getting married does make employees willing to work harder , But on the other hand , become After home Employees are more likely to see work as a tool to support their families , This may lead to their lack of creative motivation at work .
01 The Selfish Gene
Like all animals , Human beings are naturally willing to pay for their relatives , The driving force behind this is the selfish gene . In order to pass on more genes , Natural selection cannot do business at a loss .
With the help of genetics and Mathematics , You can calculate the probability that a person and his relatives have the same gene . such as , Mother and son are 50%, Brothers, too 50%, Half brother is 25%, Cousins are 12.5%. Haldane, one of the founders of modern biology （J.B.S. Haldane） Was the first attempt to explain “ Relatives choose ” Researchers of . Someone once asked him ：“ Are you willing to sacrifice your life for your brother ？” Haldane calculated carefully , And said, ：“ I am willing to work for 3 A brother 、5 A nephew , or 9 Sacrifice for a cousin .”
After getting married , Family members form a community of economic interests , Share the fruits of labor , Share life risks , The lower the income level , The greater the family incentive .
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company 2017 A survey conducted in showed that , Annual income 35,000~150,000 Families between dollars , There is widespread pressure to support the family , therefore , Employees in this income range are willing to pay more for their work under pressure .
Accompanied by the efforts brought about by family motivation , It is employees' avoidance of uncertainty . Any innovation means uncertainty of risk and return , therefore , To some extent, family burden will curb employees' creativity at work , Hit more “ Safety plate ”, Keep your job , It's their priority at all times .
02 Tools 、 Career or calling ？
There is a theory in social psychology called self-determination theory (self-determination theory) , It focuses on the internal motivation behind people's choices without being disturbed by external factors , Intrinsic motivation refers to the inner motivation of people to do something , Because I think it's interesting , Or it can satisfy some personal desires , Not to meet the expectations of the outside world .
Whether family motivation is intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation ？ It depends on the circumstances . such as , When family members desperately need you to support , In a state of starvation , It is an external motivation with a strong desire for control , Of course , It doesn't rule out that someone works to highlight and stabilize themselves “ The head of the family ” (breadwinner) The status of , Or set an example for family members , So for them , Family motivation is more in line with the characteristics of internal motivation .
in real life , Family motivation is more likely to constitute a person's external motivation to work hard . We can compare family incentives with social welfare , Also for others , We can choose the object of public welfare undertakings , also , When we don't want to give anymore , May terminate at any time , therefore , Taking part in public welfare is a typical behavior to meet people's internal motivation , yes “ I want to do this ”, instead of “ I should do this ”.
It's also labor for reward , Different people give different meanings to work , Some people regard work as “ Tools ”, Some people regard work as “ occupation ”, Others see work as “ Inspiration ” (calling) . Employees with strong family motivation generally experience a “ Meaning indifference ” The process of , In their view , In addition to high income , The work itself does not have any additional meaning . And this kind of “ Instrumental beliefs ”(job instrumentality belief) Once formed , month after month and year after year , Will continue to strengthen themselves —— A good job is to make more money , Making more money is a good job .
03 Creativity is a tax you have to pay
In a laboratory study , Scientists have found that , When the following four conditions are met at the same time , People's creativity will be significantly weakened . These four conditions are respectively ：
（1） Instrumental values —— The pursuit of any behavior must achieve a specific purpose ;
（2）“ Show (perform) ” The pressure of the ;
（3） A sense of duty ;
（4） In order to achieve the goals of others .
They are all in line with the instrumental beliefs mentioned earlier , thus it can be seen , Instrumental beliefs can ultimately hurt creativity .
according to Amabile The proposed creativity component model , The production of creative products is the result of the interaction of three basic components ： Domain related skills (domain-relevant skills) , Creativity related skills (creativity-relevant skills) And mission motivation (task motivation) . Instrumental beliefs can lead employees to focus on “ Short term gains ”, For example, economic income 、 Post stability , As for skill upgrading, it is a long-term benefit , It doesn't belong to their concern , So it's easier to fall into “ Tunnel effect ”, There is only a narrow circular tunnel built by short-term income .
Use a vivid metaphor to illustrate , Getting married will certainly make employees more eager to make money , Gold sucking horsepower is more fully driven , But employees also need to pay taxes , Pay part of the price , there “ tax ” Including being willing to take risks at work 、 Creativity 、 Embrace uncertainty and so on . They are “ To work hard ”(working hard) still “ Smart work ”(working smart) A fork in the road , Chose a more secure “ To work hard ”.
suffer “ Male Lord outside female Lord inside ” The bondage of ideas , Men need to pay higher taxes . Compared with her husband , The wife has taken on more responsibilities to take care of the family , The purpose of making money from work is relatively less urgent , Therefore, it is more likely to work “ De instrumentalization ”, Use your work to enrich your life , Meet social needs , Achieve self-development .
04 How to get married makes me “ Become counselled ”？
Zhang Xin'an is right 40 A qualitative study was conducted on a high-income class . Their average age 33.92 year ,90% It's a married person .87.5% Annual household income is higher than 400,000 element , Although it looks like a good income , But one of them 33 They expressed different levels of family economic anxiety , The results are as follows ：
Further asked about their work motivation ,37 The answer is “ Work is for the family ”. To confirm the answer , Asked a question ,“ Do you often feel like you're working for your family ”, The result is as follows ：
When asked “ How to look at your work ”,37 Among people 32 Who said “ Work is the source of family income ”, One interviewee said ,“ When choosing a job , I can't just think about my interests , The primary factor affecting my decision is not personal achievement 、 Interest in 、 The work environment , It's income ”. Some respondents also said ,“ It's too early to link work to self realization at this stage ”. Others have a more direct view ,“ If you don't give enough money , Don't talk to me about your passion for work ”.
These answers show , Obsession with income will “ Kidnap ” Employees' feelings for work involvement , Although I work hard , But I'm just a money making machine without feelings .
When asked “‘ Work for your family ’ Whether your ideas have brought concrete changes to your work ”,37 Among people 31 Your answer is yes . The study found that , The changes are mainly reflected in the following four aspects ：
First ,8 One respondent said their families made them willing to work harder , For example, take the initiative to work overtime in exchange for higher income ;
second ,6 One respondent mentioned the avoidance of uncertainty ,3 One interviewee mentioned pursuing short-term gains , Given that innovation is often accompanied by high risk and long return cycle ,5 Respondents said directly “ Unwilling to join innovative projects ”;
Third , It's easier to give in at work , 6 Respondents mentioned “ Obey your boss ”, To keep the job at hand , Even if you find your boss's omission , Will also choose to accept silently , As one interviewee said ,“ Rather than sticking to yourself , I care more about what the leaders think of me ”;
Last ,2 Respondents said they have a tendency to maximize their personal interests , Even if it hurts the interests of others in the process, I don't care . One interviewee said ,“ Since you work to make money , That's personal warfare , Don't worry about the team ”.
When asked “‘ Work for your family ’ How your ideas affect your performance ”, Respondents' responses showed that , The impact is mainly reflected in the following four aspects ：
First ,20 Respondents mentioned “ Reduced willingness to innovate ”. One interviewee said ,“ Innovation may end in nothing , The risk of failure is high , So I won't consider ”. Another respondent said ,“ I'd rather spend my precious time on ‘ Standard action ’ Make it more perfect . Innovation is time-consuming and does not guarantee good results , It's too extravagant for people who need to support their families ”.
Although the study found that , Family motivation weakens employees' Creativity , But there are no exceptions , In some special cases , It will even stimulate the creativity of employees , such as , When innovation is directly linked to revenue growth , Or when the immediate leader clearly encourages innovation （ Yes 11 Respondents mentioned this situation ） . One interviewee said ,“ To support the family , I must do well in my work , Strive for promotion and raise . And try to make the leaders remember me , New ideas stand out ‘ shortcut ’”.
second , hold “ Work for your family ” Employees who have a sense of work harder in their daily work , Less likely to make mistakes ;
Third , Employees' career choices tend to be more conservative . One interviewee said ,“ Stock options are not that attractive to me , The real income is reliable ”;
Last ,3 Respondents mentioned , Family motivation weakens their “ A sense of morality ”.
What enlightenment does the dual effect of family incentive on employee performance have for managers ？
If the enterprise wants to maintain a steady stream of innovation New movement force , Instead of eliminating 35 Stable people over the age of “ the elderly ”, Let's think about how to create an innovative atmosphere with a sense of security inside , Encourage trial and error , such , Whether or not you have a family , Do you have a mortgage to repay , Will not cost too much because of failure 、 The psychological burden is too heavy to avoid innovation . As a manager , It is recommended to incorporate the ideas and feedback of asking employees into daily work , And timely reward those employees with active innovative thinking .
Last , If managers don't just want to make fast money , It is an enterprise that is determined to establish an evergreen foundation , that , Employees' short-sighted thinking will become a stumbling block on the way forward , It is suggested that enterprises make great efforts in the performance appraisal system , You can't just focus on the results , The process should also be included in the scope of assessment . 【 Thank Zhang Xin'an, Professor of Antai School of economics and management, Shanghai Jiaotong University, for his full support for this article 】
This article is from WeChat official account. “ China Europe Business Review ”（ID:ceibs-cbr）, author ： Zhou Qi ,36 Krypton authorized release .
author[36kr],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.
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