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32 years, 32 pictures, review the cosmic beauty photographed by Hubble telescope!
2022-05-07 16:19:19【Popular science China】
“ one 's name is known far and wide ” Hubble space telescope , This year, 32 Year old . All the way out of the atmosphere , Over the years, we have taken a wonderful picture of the universe . Review together .
picture source ：NASA Official website
The Hubble Space Telescope （Hubble Space Telescope, abbreviation HST） yes NASA And the European Space Agency （ESA） The joint project of , The space shuttle discovery was launched in 1990 year 4 month 24 Launch Sunday , Later in 4 month 25 Put the Hubble telescope into orbit on the th .
▲ The Hubble Space Telescope （ picture source ：NASA）
This telescope in space , Completely free from the interference of the earth's atmosphere , Let us have a glimpse of the true face of the universe . Hubble has been very busy for decades , It looks at the galaxy 、 The comet 、 An asteroid 、 Nebula 、 Planets and stars , Alignment 50000 More than... Celestial targets have been carried out 150 10000 times imaging .
32 Over the years , Hubble has experienced many space repairs , And survived a series of technical failures , Even the latest generation of James · The Weber telescope is already in orbit , This aging Observatory still exists , And continue to run .
Next , Let's follow these wonderful pictures of the universe , Understand the great achievements of this telescope .
1991 year ： The first color photograph of Jupiter
1991 year , The Hubble telescope, which has just been in operation , It brought us a surprise . Use its wide-angle planetary camera （Wide Field Planetary Camera）, The Hubble telescope took the first color picture of Jupiter . Substances such as ammonia and ice in Jupiter's atmosphere form banded clouds , The lower right corner is Jupiter's famous Great Red Spot —— One has existed for centuries , Giant storms and cyclones larger in diameter than the earth . This is just a fledgling Hubble test knife , After the maintenance and upgrade, more high-definition photos of Jupiter were taken .
1992 year ： Elliptical galaxies NGC 4261 Center of
This slightly blurred image , Showing elliptical galaxies NGC 4261 The central disk structure . The diameter is about 300 The light-year disc consists of low-temperature gas and dust , It is also the material source of the black hole in the center of the galaxy . Its close 60° The inclination of the allows astronomers to clearly identify its internal structure . Supermassive black holes are frantically accreting surrounding material , Produce a strong explosion , Form a radio jet .
1993 year ： Swan circle
Swan circle （Cygnus Loop, Also known as electric wave source W78）, It's a huge supernova remnant in the constellation Cygnus . This picture is a small part of the Swan circle , With unprecedented clarity , Shows about 1.5 Ten thousand years ago, the edge of the shock wave produced by the explosion of a huge star .
1994 year ： Spiral galaxy Messier 100 Center of
When the Hubble Space Telescope was launched , Because the mirror has tiny defects , His photos are slightly blurred .1993 year 12 month ,NASA The Hubble telescope was repaired for the first time ,NASA The astronauts corrected the mirror defect 、 Upgrade the wide-angle planetary camera to the second generation , In addition, the computer has been updated 、 Solar panels 、 Gyroscopes and other equipment . This is a picture of the spiral arm structure of the brightest Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster , It was taken shortly after the Hubble telescope was upgraded .
1995 year ： The pillar of creation
Many readers must be familiar with this picture . This is one of the most famous works of the Hubble telescope , from 32 A mosaic of pictures , The Eagle Nebula （M16） In the evacuation Star Cloud , A columnar structure of gas and dust . The highest of them “ column ” A good 4 Light age . The pillar of creation is born in the process of photoevaporation ： Ultraviolet light from newborn stars causes the gas in the nebula to escape , Not yet “ evaporation ” This beautiful image is made up of gas and dust .
1996 year ： The cluster 0024+1654 Gravitational lens
Although the bright area in the center of the picture is eye-catching , But let's look first at the blue ring in the picture . Count , Is there any 5 A blue celestial body ？ in fact , They are all the same galaxy ！ And what led to this phenomenon , It's the central galaxy cluster in the picture 0024+1654 Gravitational lensing effect ： When the light from the blue galaxy passes , Its huge gravitational field causes light to bend , So that we can see the rare “ Ghosting ”.
1997 year ： Butterfly Nebula
This planetary nebula, which looks like a butterfly spreading its wings, is also known as Minkowski 2-9 Nebula （M2-9）, By astronomer Rudolph · Minkowski is 1947 Annual discovery . A full 50 After year , The Hubble telescope took a clear picture of it . At the center of the Butterfly Nebula , The two stars orbit each other at a very close distance , There may even be star engulfment .
1998 year ： Saturn's infrared image
This colorful picture of Saturn , It's not the real color of Saturn , But its reflected infrared light . Different colors reflect the distribution characteristics of Saturn's atmosphere ： Blue indicates the atmosphere as low as clouds , Its hue may consist of ammonia ice crystals ; Green and yellow are the layers of smoke above the clouds ; Clouds are higher in the red and orange areas , Reached the atmosphere ; The dark region of the South Pole represents a giant hole in the clouds .
1999 year ： Jupiter and IO
Compared with the lethargy of most planets and satellites in the solar system , IO has more than 400 This active volcano makes it the most geologically active object in the solar system , At the same time, it has also become the focus of scientists . In trying to find Io's volcanic plume , In the ultraviolet and violet wavelengths , The Hubble telescope accidentally captured the moment IO passed Jupiter . The black circular area on the right of the picture , It's Io's shadow on Jupiter .
2000 year ： Bright Eye Nebula
This cosmic eye , May indicate 60 The end of the sun in 100 million years . At a distance from the earth 6500 Light years of the constellation Aquila , A star with a mass similar to that of the sun is coming to the end of life . The gas in the outer layer of the star is blown into the universe , Exposed hot core
Ultraviolet radiation , Ionize the outer gas . A fluorescent expanding gas with a bright central core , Forming a brightly colored planetary nebula —— Bright Eye Nebula （NGC 6751）.
2001 year ： Horsehead Nebula
representative 2001 Year of , It is also a vivid picture of the nebula , It looks like the head of a red rabbit horse with handsome sideburns , Horsehead Nebula （ Also known as Barnard 33） Hence the name . But compared with the brilliance of the bright Eye Nebula , The Horsehead Nebula looks a little dim . This dark nebula is made up of cold 、 Dense gas 、 Dust clouds make up , Its formation process is similar to the pillar of creation .（ I don't remember ？ Turn back 1995 Review the pictures in ！）
2002： Cone Nebula
Another Nebula . For its outline , You may already have countless associations , But its name is much simpler —— Cone Nebula （ Also known as NGC 2264）. The length of the Cone Nebula reaches 7 Light years , This image shows the upper part of the nebula 2.5 Light years . Similar to the pillar of creation , The Cone Nebula is also undergoing a process called “ erode ” The process of . Hydrogen under ultraviolet radiation emits a dim red light , Make up the red halo around the nebula .
2003 year ： Omega Nebula
This magnificent “ Huge waves hit the shore ” chart , It's more than... From the earth 5000 Light years of the Omega Nebula （ Also known as the Swan Nebula or Messier 17） Part of . Although it seems dangerous , But this is the cradle of a large number of stars . In the nebula “ fearful billows ” Hydrogen clouds are carved and lit by young massive stars “ Artwork ”： The bright orange red light on the surface comes from the heated gas , And the seemingly cold green area on the left , In fact, after matter leaves the nebula , The formation of a hotter gas .
2004 year ：AM 0644-741 Galaxy
At a distance from the earth 3 Billion light-years of flying fish , The Hubble telescope found a piece of... Inlaid with sapphire “ ring ”. This unique ring structure , After the collision of neighboring galaxies “ The escape ” Result , The impact of the collision significantly changed the orbits of stars and gas in the galactic disk , Let them move outward . And then , Gas clouds collide and compress , A large number of newborn stars are formed in the ring .
2005 year ： Whirlpool galaxy
Spiral galaxies are named after spiral arms that extend outward from the core , These spiral arms are home to many newborn stars . And in these galaxies , The protagonist of this picture NGC 5194 Because of the amazing standard swivel arm shape , Directly known as spiral galaxies （Whirlpool Galaxy,NGC 5194）. among , The spiral arm is used as a star making factory , By compressing hydrogen , Pregnant with young stars ; And the yellow core in the center , It is the residence of old stars .
2006 year ： messier 82（ Cigar Galaxy ）
With neighbor Messier 81 Under the gravitational interaction of , messier 82 Experienced a rapid process of star birth （ Starburst ）： At the center of the galaxy , The rate of star birth is the same as that of the Milky way 10 times . The radiation of the newborn star blows the surrounding gas away , The resulting interstellar wind compresses the gas , Enough to form millions of newborn stars . among , Red in the picture shows the activity of starbursts photographed in the infrared band ; Blue and yellow green represent the visible band .
2007 year ： The Carina Nebula
This is the birthplace of stars , It's also the graveyard of stars . This fantastic picture , It's the Carina Nebula （NGC 3372） The central area of . Outward flowing winds and ultraviolet radiation from giant stars , Together, they created the striking shape of the Carina Nebula .
2008 year ： Galaxy collision
2008 Representative photos of , from 12 The pictures together make up , Together, they show the different stages of a rare Galaxy collision scene . With the accelerated expansion of the universe , The probability of Galaxy fusion is getting lower and lower , At present, only one thousandth . But in the early universe , Galaxies are closer , Therefore, the collision probability is also high .
2009 year ： Interacting galaxies Arp 194
This is called Arp 194 The interacting galaxy is a complex special system . Spiral galaxies 、 New galactic nuclei and a series of chaotic spiral arms form Arp 194 The upper part of , The lower part is a separate large spiral galaxy . Connecting two parts , It's a complex of several superclusters . The hot, massive stars in each cluster emit fascinating blue light .
2010 year ： Mysterious mountain （Mystic Mountain）
The denser interstellar gas and dust form towering pillars , The light of nearby bright stars erodes from the outside , The hot newborn stars in the column also emit radiation and streams of charged particles , Jointly carve out rugged peaks . In the mountains , The hot ionized gas flows like a stream . Mountain week , Thin clouds of gas and dust . the “ Mysterious mountain ” Just stand quietly in 7500 The ship's base light years away .
2011 year ： Colliding galaxies Arp 273
The larger spiral galaxy in the picture is UGC 1810, Affected by companion star system UGC 1813 The gravitational influence of , Its chart has been deformed , Twisted into the shape of flowers .UGC 1810 Galaxies are flowers ,UGC 1813 Galaxies are stems , There are also young and hot blue stars dotted on the edge of the petals —— That's it , Galaxy collisions create a universe “ Rose ”.
2012 year ： Spider Nebula
Spider Nebula （Tarantula Nebula） Swordfish in the center 30 Is a “ Star Factory ”, ad locum , Millions of young stars are racing to shine . The bright area on the left of the picture is a huge young star cluster NGC 2070, It's just 200 Ten thousand years' history , But have 50 Ten thousand stars . These newborn stars emit a lot of ultraviolet light , Eroding the hydrogen cloud surrounding the cluster .
2013 year ： The Horsehead Nebula in the infrared band
12 After year , The Horsehead Nebula appears again . Just this time , The nebula in the picture brightens . This is because , This picture was taken in the infrared band . The bulge of the nebula has a high density of helium and hydrogen , And covered with dust , This can protect the part under it from being eroded by light . It is estimated that , about 500 After ten thousand, , The Horsehead Nebula will dissipate .
2014 year ： The monkey Head Nebula
2014 This picture taken by the Hubble telescope took us to 6400 The year of the monkey's head beyond the nebula （Monkey Head Nebula）. This is a breeding ground for stars . The center of the nebula , Newborn stars （ Right side of the picture ） The ultraviolet light ionizes the hydrogen, the main component in the star cloud , To etch it into a strange shape .
2015 year ： Westerou 2（Westerlund 2）
About 2 Ten thousand light-years of ship base , beautiful Gum29 The nebula is like a cloud of fireworks in the universe . At the center of the nebula is a cloud composed of about 3000 A giant cluster of stars , be called Westerlund 2. This cluster has only 200 Ten thousand years' history , But it contains a lot of high temperature 、 Bright, massive newborn stars , They release powerful ultraviolet rays and stellar winds , Carve magnificent peaks and valleys on the surrounding gas clouds .
2016 year ： Bubble Nebula
In the vast space , There are many such floating “ Bubble ”, Most of them are masterpieces of stars and interstellar gas . In the picture is the diameter 7 Light year Bubble Nebula （Bubble Nebula, The official name is NGC 7635）, At ten o'clock in the nebula is a hot star , Its mass is about that of the sun 45 times . The stellar wind from the star pushes away the surrounding interstellar gas , It forms a bubble like Nebula .
2017 year ：NGC 4302 And NGC 4298
In the Hubble telescope 27 birthday , Astronomers used it to photograph NGC 4302（ Left ）、NGC 4298（ Right ） These two spiral galaxies . They are located... Away from the earth 5500 Ten thousand light-years later , With one side facing the telescope , The other is inclined to , So it looks different in the picture . If you look at the Milky way from outside the galaxy , Maybe it will be similar .
2018 year ： Lagoon Nebula
In the center of the picture , One is brighter than the sun 20 Ten thousand times more newborn stars break out of their cocoons , It emits ultraviolet light and strong stellar winds , Tore through the thick interstellar gas and dust around . All this happened in the Lagoon Nebula （Lagoon Nebula）, This is a giant star breeding ground . And the Hubble telescope led us through 4000 The distance of light years , Witnessed this extraordinary scene of star birth .
2019 year ： The southern Crab Nebula
This is the southern Crab Nebula thousands of light-years away from Earth （Southern Crab Nebula, The official name is Hen 2-104）. At the center of the nebula , It is a binary system composed of a red giant star and a white dwarf star , The material in the outer layer of the red giant keeps spewing out , Attracted by the gravity of the white dwarf , And filled the gap between the two stars , It forms such a unique shape similar to the hourglass .
2020 year ： Red nebula and blue Nebula
Red Nebula （NGC 2014） And the blue Nebula （NGC 2020） yes 163000 Light years away, a star forming region in the Large Magellanic galaxy . The red nebula is like a coral reef floating in the vast sea of stars , So this picture is also called cosmic reef . The red nebula contains a large number of bright and huge stars , Their mass is as high as the sun 10-20 times ; The blue Nebula consists of a star brighter than the sun 20 Ten thousand times as many stars form after a series of eruptions .
2021 year ： Destroy the superstar on the edge
Astronomers aimed the famous observatory at a bright “ Celebrity stars ”—— The bottom of the boat AG（AG Carinae）, This is one of the brightest stars in our galaxy , Surrounded by hot gas and dust . The bottom of the boat AG On the verge of collapse , The gravitational action and outward radiation of stars carry out a protracted tug of war , To avoid self destruction . The expanding gas and dust shells surrounding the star are about five light-years wide , It's about the same distance as our distance to nearest neighbor .
This giant star is made of about 10000 Caused by one or more large-scale eruptions years ago , The outer layers of stars are blown into space , Like a boiling teapot popping from its lid , The ejected material is about the mass of our sun 10 times . Although the base of the ship AG Now at rest , But as a super hot star , It will continue to pour out scorching radiation and powerful stellar winds （ Charged particle flow ）.
2022 year ： Dense 5 A galaxy
In this picture , We can see three spiral galaxies 、 An elliptical galaxy and a lenticular galaxy , Their layout makes us look very comfortable . It is located in the “ Sea serpent ” The direction is about 3 Billion light-years later “ Hexon compact Galaxy Group 40”（HCG40:Hickson Compoct Group40）. From the image , The Milky way seems quite close , actually 5 A galaxy could be a galactic disk （ Diam. 10 Thousands of light-years ） Of 2 Below the times , That is, the diameter is not enough 20 Ten thousand light-years of dense areas .NASA Express , They will be around 10 Collision in 100 million years , And merge into a huge elliptical galaxy . Although the Hubble telescope has a very long life , But it's hard for it to witness this event .
This is a brief review of Hubble's journey to the universe , Thank you, Hubble 32 Years of effort ！
（ This article is a comprehensive study of global science 、NASA Space enthusiasts 、 Trisomy fan ）
Produce ： Popular science central kitchen
Supervise the manufacture of ： Beijing Science and technology news | Beike media
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