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Behind the popularity of Vietnam's manufacturing industry: foreign capital takes flight, but it has no wings
Under the new crown epidemic ,“ Touch China to cross the river ” Vietnam, which is engaged in economic construction, is suddenly on fire .
The first quarter of this year , Vietnam's GDP （GDP） Expected year-on-year growth 5.03%, Beyond China （4.8%）. The results of trade and export are of particular concern ： Vietnam in that season （ Population 9800 ten thousand ） The total amount of import and export of goods reaches 1763.5 Billion dollars , Equivalent to Guangdong Province of China in the same period （ Permanent population 1.27 Billion ） Of 61％、 Jiangsu Province （ Permanent population 8500 ten thousand ） Of 90%. During this period, Vietnam's exports reached 885.8 Billion dollars （ renminbi 5921 One hundred million yuan , Year-on-year growth 12.9%）, It has exceeded the total export volume of Shenzhen, China in the same period （4076.6 One hundred million yuan ）.
Although there is still a big gap with China , But in terms of body size , Vietnam is accelerating towards the new frontier “ World factory ”.
With an open market environment 、 Superior geographical location 、 Relatively abundant and cheap labor resources , Vietnam is increasingly favored by the international manufacturing industry , From China 、 Japan 、 Funds from countries such as South Korea and Singapore have poured into . According to the central organ of the Communist Party of Vietnam 《 People's daily 》5 month 4 Daily news , And 2019 Years and 2020 Compared to , Vietnam's foreign capital has increased 60%.“ Many investors believe that ： Vietnam has been and will continue to be attractive to investors , It will soon become the technology center of the region ”.
The rise of Vietnam , It's very imaginative .1986 year , Vietnam, which sees the good and thinks of the good, takes China as its teaching material , Introduction “ Open innovation ” policy , Start the process of marketization . Driven by two engines of export and foreign investment , Vietnam, based on export-oriented economy, soon embarked on the road of take-off , Become what many people think “ Next China ”. In the context of Globalization , So-called “ China Vietnam manufacturing dispute ” It has gradually become a hot topic in all walks of life .
But no matter from the historical conditions or the characteristics of the current stage , There are essential differences in manufacturing between China and Vietnam . In manufacturing , In fact, there is no so-called... Between China and Vietnam “ transcend ” and “ replace ” Relationship , Cooperation is still the melody of the times ： One side , Production is booming 、 Vietnam rising peacefully , It is beneficial to China and even the world ; On the other hand , As a great country , China does not need and will not beggar its neighbors . The markets of China and Vietnam are closely related , The reality of deep integration of industrial chain and supply chain will not change .
From the development of manufacturing industry , Vietnam's growth experience , It may even be for “ teacher ” China has brought a lot of inspiration . The company of Korean brand Samsung in Vietnam , Last year's revenue was equivalent to that of the same period in the country GDP Of 20%, While driving the development of Vietnam's manufacturing industry, foreign giants , It has also accelerated Vietnam's domestic industry's dependence on foreign countries , It has seriously affected the development of local enterprises in Vietnam .
For many developing countries, including China , Reduce external dependence 、 Enhance brand influence 、 Pay attention to the manufacturing industry and labor groups with low and medium-level technology , It is a series of problems that can not be ignored . Vietnam , It is a small mirror of Asia at present .
Foreign investment leads Vietnam's exports , Which of China, Japan and South Korea contributed the most ？
In recent years, the discussion on the rise of Vietnam has been very popular , An important reason behind this is the outstanding performance of Vietnam's economic growth . stay 2016-2019 Year , Vietnam GDP The average annual growth rate is 6.5% above .2020 year , Under the impact of novel coronavirus pneumonia , Although Vietnam's economic growth has fallen to 2.91%, But it is still one of the few countries in the world that maintain positive economic growth .
Vietnam's economic growth has largely benefited from export trade .2016 So far this year , Vietnam has maintained a trade surplus for many years .
Screenshot of the report of the Ministry of Commerce
But combined with the year to date data , Vietnam's trade exports have two striking features .
Vietnam's export performance mainly comes from foreign direct investment （FDI） field .
Before this year 4 Take the data of last month as an example , Vietnam has achieved a trade surplus during the period 25.3 Billion dollars （ The same period last year was 15 Billion dollars ）, Among them, Vietnam's domestic enterprises realized a trade deficit 92 Billion dollars , And foreign-funded enterprises （ Contains crude oil ） Then realize a trade surplus 117.3 Billion dollars . This set of data largely shows that ： Although Vietnam's export trade is hot , But it is by no means equivalent to that local enterprises have export competitiveness .
On the contrary , Vietnam's local enterprises are actually at a disadvantage . Before this year 4 Months , Vietnam's commodity exports have reached 1223.6 Billion dollars , Year-on-year growth 16.4%. Including foreign enterprises （ Contains crude oil ） Merchandise exports amounted to 905.9 Billion dollars （ growth 14.7%）, Of total exports 74%; The export volume of commodities of domestic enterprises reached 317.7 Billion dollars （ growth 21.6%）, Accounting for only... Of total exports 26%.
Second, the main theme of Vietnam's export trade is “ machining ”, Never mastered core technology .
Statistics display ,2022 Years ago 4 Months ,10 More than US $100 million worth of export commodities totaled 22 Kind of , Of total exports 86.9%（ With more than 50 $ 6 Kind of , Occupy 63.1%）. From the perspective of export product structure , Processed products account for 89%, Agricultural and forestry products account for 6.8%, Proportion of aquatic products 2.9%, Fuel and mineral products account for 1.3%.
meanwhile , Processing equipment in Vietnam 、 Parts and raw materials （ Energy containing products ） It's an imported big head . Same period Vietnam 10 More than US $100 million of imported goods totaled 22 Kind of , Of total imports 81.5%. Among them, mechanical equipment and parts products account for 45.2%, Raw materials 、 Fuel share 48.8%, Consumer goods account for 6.1%.
If Vietnam is regarded as a factory , So this factory develops 、 The taste of the product is lighter , machining 、 The smell of assembly is too strong .
Over the years , Which countries and regions are investing in Vietnam ？
According to the Foreign Investment Bureau of the Ministry of planning and investment of Vietnam ,2021 Foreign investment in Vietnam... Years 310 Billion dollars , Year-on-year growth 9%. Foreign investment in Vietnam involves Vietnam 21 In the field of national economy 18 individual . among , The processing and manufacturing industry absorbs the most foreign capital , More than 181 Billion dollars , Of Vietnam's total foreign investment 58.2%.
According to statistics ,2021 In a total of 106 Countries and regions invest in Vietnam . Judging from the top five foreign investment scale last year , Singapore ranks first , More than 107 Billion dollars , The country accounts for... Of Vietnam's total foreign investment 34.4%; South Korea is the second closest 50 Billion dollars , Occupy 15.9%; Japan is the third , near 39 Billion dollars , Occupy 12.5%. Mainland China and Hong Kong ranked fourth and fifth respectively , The investment amount is in order of 29 Billion dollars （9.3%） and 23 Billion dollars （7.4%）, The sum of the two places has surpassed South Korea .
If we expand the scope of statistics to the three places on both sides of the Strait , Then the amount of China's investment in Vietnam will be further enlarged .
since this year on , China, Japan and South Korea are still the main sources of investment in Vietnam Source: Vietnam News Agency
From poverty to manufacturing power , Why Vietnam ？
Vietnam 1986 Reform and opening up were implemented in 、2006 Joined the World Trade Organization in , In recent years, it has been giving the green light to foreign investment .2020 year 7 month , Vietnam's parliament passed a new 《 Investment Law 》 And in 2021 year 1 month 1 Take effect . new 《 Investment Law 》 Further improve the transparency of foreign investment market access , Reduce administrative examination and approval procedures . The influx of external industrial capital , Let Vietnam's manufacturing and processing industry begin to brush the screen .
Samsung super 50% Mobile phone export and 1/3 Shipments of electronic products , All made in Vietnam ; Nike super 50% Footwear products and 30% Our clothing products , All completed in Vietnam factory ; There are... In the US market 1/3 Footwear products and 1/5 clothing , Are processed and manufactured in Vietnam …… Over the years , Eye and gold sucking Vietnam , Seems to be taking it away from China “ World factory ” Business card of .
If macro data show that Vietnam is becoming a major manufacturing country ; Then the micro perspective of the enterprise just becomes a useful supplement ： How Vietnam became a big manufacturing country . One side , This describes the flow direction of capital and industrial chain in the world in different times ; On the other hand , This also reflects the different development stages of China and Vietnam .
so to speak , It is the window provided by the times , So that made in Vietnam can make a difference .
2021 Three stars in （ Vietnam ） Company revenue 742 Billion dollars , Equivalent to Vietnam GDP（3626.19 Billion dollars ）, growth 14%; The export volume reaches 655 Billion dollars , growth 16%. By 2021 end of the year , The total investment of Samsung Electronics in Vietnam reached 180 Billion dollars , a 2020 Annual growth 102%.
Based on this set of data , Samsung's investment history in Vietnam , To some extent, it is the history of Vietnam's manufacturing industry .
China was originally Samsung's main production base , however 2010 Years later , Samsung started “ Withdraw from China and run over ”. One of the important reasons is the rising labor costs in China's manufacturing industry —— This is also about Vietnam “ To undertake industrial transfer ” One of the focuses of the discussion .
Statistics released by Japan Trade Promotion Agency show that ,2011 year , Hanoi, Vietnam 、 The monthly wages of Japanese manufacturing workers in Ho Chi Minh City , Equivalent to Beijing, China 、 Wages of similar enterprises in Shanghai and Shanghai 21%-29%. here we are 2018 year , The monthly wages of workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities , Compared with 2011 The level in has almost doubled , However, it is still only equivalent to the level of workers in Beijing and Shanghai 31%-36%.
For the international market , Although the labor cost in Vietnam has increased in recent ten years , However, the overall low price advantage in the region continues to be maintained .
Source: Institute of regional and country studies, Peking University. Data source: Japan Trade Promotion Agency
Combined with the regional geographical location , stay 2018 year , The monthly wage cost of workers is lower than that in Vietnam （ Take Hanoi 217 dollar / Human level ） Major cities in , Phnom Penh, the capital of the kingdom of Cambodia （201 dollar ）、 Vientiane, the capital of the Lao People's Democratic Republic （180 dollar ） And Yangon, the former capital of Myanmar （162 dollar ）.
But compared with these countries and their major cities, they are naturally far away from the sea , Vietnam is surrounded by the sea on three sides , Hanoi city and Ho Chi Minh City are more convenient thoroughfares , It can be said that it has taken full advantage of . meanwhile , The labor cost of the two places is far lower than that of Bangkok with more obvious geographical advantages 、 Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur , Naturally, it has become the relative optimization of labor cost performance .
Samsung's factories in Vietnam are located in Beining province 、 Taiyuan province and Ho Chi Minh City , Naturally, you will enjoy the dividend of cheap labor in Vietnam .
There are many ports , Convenient transportation , The cost of labor and land production factors is low , Vietnam's regional comparative advantage , Gradually formed a small part “ Siphon effect ”, Let it be favored by foreign capital and orders “ World factory ”. Many Vietnamese textile and garment enterprises have received a large number of orders , More and more electronic products such as mobile phones and computers are also beginning to “ From Vietnam ”.
Take Chinese enterprises as an example , Taiwan's Hon Hai set up a factory in Vietnam 、 financing , part iPad and MacBook The production line landed in Vietnam ; For Dell 、 Google 、 Compal, the Amazon brand OEM company, aims at Yongfu Province ; Instant precision, an apple supplier in mainland China 、 Goethe acoustics 、 Blue Technology 、 Desai battery, etc , It is also increasing the production scale in Vietnam .
But unfortunately , As far as Vietnam's manufacturing industry itself is concerned . More than ten years have passed , In the field of mobile phones, Vietnam is not like China , Breed a cohesive brand power 、 Local brands with technical competitiveness and market share . Not only did Vietnam's manufacturing industry not realize the transformation from manufacturing to Intelligent Manufacturing , Foreign brands are relative to the whole country , Still a behemoth .
As a foreign-funded enterprise ,2021 Three stars in （ Vietnam ） The company's revenue is equivalent to Vietnam GDP Of 20% about . Such a picture will never appear in China ：2021 In, Sinopec was the listed company with the largest revenue in China , Its revenue in that year was RMB 27409 One hundred million yuan , Only equivalent to China in those days GDP（1143670 One hundred million yuan ） Of 2.4%. China's revenue in the same period 20 The total revenue of large listed companies is about RMB 21 Trillion yuan . These span energy 、 Industry （ common 7 home ）、 Finance 、 The sum of the company's total revenue in the fields of communication and non daily consumer goods , Equivalent to the same period in China GDP Of 18.4%.
Data source: Oriental Fortune
It is worth noting that ,“ Cheap labor ” And location advantages are important factors for Vietnam to attract foreign investment , But not the only factor . In recent years, Vietnam has another advantage in the favorable treatment of foreign investment provided by its government ： Provide long-term free production sites to , Exempt from its initial operation 4 Corporate tax in . meanwhile , Vietnam is close to South China , Easy access to Chinese raw materials and parts supply , Can fully enjoy the dividends of China's Industrial Development .
The combination of internal and external factors ,“ days 、 The right place 、 and ” Laman , This is Vietnam's manufacturing industry “ It's delicious ” The inner reason for this .
“ sweet ” It doesn't mean absolutely “ good ”. Vietnam enjoys the benefits of foreign investment and its order flow , Naturally, we should also look directly at the hidden worries behind .
Samsung and Vietnam manufacturing ： Big man take fly , It's still a disaster ？
Vietnam has a land area of 32.9 10,000 square kilometers , More than Italy and Poland ; By 2020 end of the year , Vietnam's national population 9734 ten thousand people , Over Germany 、 France and England . From these two sets of data , If Vietnam “ In Europe ”, It seems to be a big country . But since modern times , Vietnam, under colonial aggression, is like many Asian countries , Did not catch up with the tide of modernization .
1978 year , China has opened the prelude to reform and opening up , Vietnam has just achieved national reunification . Since the founding of the people's Republic of China, China has been self reliant , overcome difficulties , Develop its own light and light industries . In contrast, Vietnam ：1986 year , Less than a decade after reunification, Vietnam began to implement the reform and opening-up policy , Big steps into the global market . After the Asian financial crisis , Vietnam has received the bonus of OEM manufacturing , Export trade takes off , However, the accumulation of domestic hard power has never kept up with .
Like to see , Samsung Vietnam's revenue scale , Equivalent to the country 1/5 Of GDP, It's actually terrible .
From the industrial dependence index of various industries of Vietnam's manufacturing industry （ The closer the value is to -1, It means that the higher the external dependence of the industry ） Look at , Vietnam 2013-2019 In, the external dependence of electronic products decreased significantly , since 2017 Keep it low in the future . But other industries such as transportation tools remain high . Behind this is the increasing output of electronic products in Vietnam , But other links have not kept up .
Source: Institute of regional and national studies, Peking University Data source: Ministry of industry and trade of Vietnam
On the bright side , Vietnam's demographic dividend and labor cost advantages have attracted Korean enterprises , Samsung took off with Vietnam ; But actually , It is Vietnam that gives Samsung and other foreign enterprises “ Super national treatment ” And monopoly , Let Vietnam become a paradise for foreign capital games . Vietnam's dependence on foreign electronic products has weakened , It is not that its domestic R & D and supply capacity have been improved , But Samsung bundled a large number of enterprises to go to Vietnam to make money .
Vietnam's local enterprises are technologically backward , Only some low-end parts can be provided . Then Samsung can keep the price down , Suppress the profit and development space of Vietnamese enterprises ; At the same time, we can take the opportunity for relevant enterprises to establish a supply chain in Vietnam , Exclusive supply Samsung . This creates a wonderful vicious circle ： As a foreign capital, Samsung , Driving Vietnam's economic data ; But local companies in Vietnam , But lost the prospect of development .
such “ Blood sucking type ” The logical part explains why Huawei has not appeared in Vietnam so far 、OV And Xiaomi and other local well-known enterprises ; And in “ Labor advantage ” and “ Business link ” outside , Vietnam's manufacturing industry has rarely been unique in recent years Guanya New highlights of the continent .
2021 year , Vietnam proposed “ two centenary goals ” Development objectives , Which point out that ： To be in 2045 Vietnam was built into a “ Prosperous and developed countries ”, Get into “ Enter the ranks of the happiest high-income countries in the world ”、 Become “ Global Front 20 China is the most competitive country in knowledge economy ”、“ Industry is developing in the direction of modernization , The proportion of agriculture has dropped to 10％ The following countries that no longer have pure agriculture ”.
In a way , It can be said that the goal of Vietnam's modernization is higher than that of China . But at home in Vietnam , Indigenous technology 、 The absence of enterprises and brands , It's easy to make Vietnam's manufacturing industry strong , Become a false prosperity of empty joy .
President of Ho Chi Minh City urban economy and Management Research Association Phuong Ngoc Thach Express , Vietnamese people may mistakenly believe that the goal of industrialization and modernization has been achieved , But in fact, this goal is still far away . According to relevant investigations , For a long time , There are... Among Samsung's parts suppliers 80% For Korean enterprises , Vietnamese enterprises are only 10%. Although the Vietnamese government has repeatedly asked Samsung to adopt products from Vietnamese suppliers , But the effect has never been great . Samsung is obviously unwilling to share the huge economic benefits of being a monopoly oligarch .Phuong Ngoc Thach At the same time pointed out that , The localization rate of Samsung products is low , There is also less technology transfer in production , Therefore, the contribution to Vietnam's gross national product is not big .
It is worth mentioning that ,2019 Jin duxuan, former director of Samsung Group （Kim Do-hyun） As South Korea's ambassador to Vietnam , The influence of a foreign enterprise on Vietnam can be seen . But I'm afraid Vietnam can't forget , Capital is profit seeking , This kind of person is not destined to be attached to the honeymoon for a long time . Samsung's ebb tide in China , Not because China is no longer fragrant . On the contrary , samsung “ Abandon China ” Because China has further developed , The domestic manufacturing industry has stood up , Local businesses and consumers have grown . Chinese consumers have the right to choose and say no .
This year, 2 month , Samsung said , Transfer the two parts production lines of Samsung smartphone partner company in Taiyuan Province, Vietnam to the factory in Guiwei City, Gyeongsang North Road, South Korea . For Vietnam , This is undoubtedly bad news ： Foreign capital can choose Vietnam , Naturally, Vietnam can also be abandoned at any time when necessary —— in fact , Including the United States , Developed countries in recent years “ Industrial chain backflow ” Has become a consensus . This gives all dependencies “ Substitute processing ” Developing countries have sounded an alarm ： Export OEM 、 Relying on foreign capital , May not be able to eat for a lifetime .
Vietnam's manufacturing industry catches up with China , Why is it a false proposition ？
Under the background of strong processing and export of products such as electronics and textiles , Made in Vietnam has become popular in recent years . For a long time “ World factory ” China is often compared with Vietnam , Any flurry of data such as economic growth , Will set off a big wave .
But from the data , China and Vietnam are not comparable .
On the whole data , China GDP The growth rate is better than Vietnam .2016-2021 year , China GDP The growth rates are 6.7%、6.9%、6.6%、6.0%、2.2% and 8.1%; Vietnam in the same period 6.21%、6.81%、7.08%、7.02%、2.91％ and 2.58%. China is not only in recent years GDP Better than Vietnam in arithmetic mean , It has withstood the downward pressure of the global economy and the repeated impact of the epidemic , Achieved positive growth .
When it comes to growth , You can't put aside the cardinality .2016 year , In our country GDP The total current price is 74.36 RMB 100 million （ about 11.23 Trillions of dollars ）,2016 Vietnam GDP The total amount is only 2046 Billion dollars ;2021 In our country GDP breakthrough 114 Trillion yuan （ About us 17.77 Trillions of dollars ）, Vietnam GDP About us 3626 Billion dollars . The economic performance of China and Vietnam , It's not suitable to compare them together .
Now Vietnam , It is more like China where the processing industry in the Pearl River Delta is booming after the new millennium . But then China ,GDP The annual growth rate is maintained at 9%-14% Left and right high level . Even if compared according to this caliber , Now Vietnam also failed . In recent years , China GDP While growing , In developing quality 、 The level of environmental protection and industrial upgrading have improved significantly , This is what Vietnam cannot achieve in the short term .
2022-2011 In, China and Vietnam GDP Comparison of annual growth rate Sina Finance screenshot
What if we focus on the comparison between Vietnam and Shenzhen ？ Similarly, you can't simply use numbers to represent everything .
The first quarter of this year , Shenzhen exports 4076.6 One hundred million yuan , falling 2.6%; Vietnam's national export volume is 891 Billion dollars （ About us 5842 RMB 100 million ）, Year-on-year growth 13.4%. From the number itself , Vietnam's export trade has indeed surpassed that of Shenzhen , But the truth is not .
Vietnam's economy is still driven by electronics and textile exports . But since Guangdong 2008 Year begins , It has begun to transform to medium and high-end manufacturing . In the existing structure , Shenzhen exports mainly mechanical and electrical products 、 High value-added high-tech industrial products . It is worth mentioning that , Compared with the hot investment in Vietnam's real estate industry , At present, the biggest contributor to Shenzhen's investment comes from the manufacturing industry , Not infrastructure or real estate .
For a long time , Vietnam is regarded by the outside world as a Chinese student , Various economic construction routes are in line with China . However, in the face of the COVID-19 , Vietnam, which originally insisted on epidemic prevention and control , stay 2021 year 10 Monthly turn , Its prevention and control strategy starts from “ Dynamic reset ” Turn into “ Coexist with virus ”. At a time when Omicron is raging , There is no lack of views on Vietnam's performance in the first quarter of this year GDP Growth performance and “ Coexist with virus ” Linked to our epidemic prevention policy .
Whether in terms of economic volume , Economic growth , From the perspective of import and export trade structure , Vietnam's economy “ take off ” Good , Vietnam's manufacturing industry can catch up with China , In fact, they are all false propositions . From a manufacturing perspective , If China today is compared to a country that focuses on R & D products , Pursue technological and conceptual revolution , The teacher who leads the trend , So Vietnam is now more like an apprentice who works on behalf of others , Not even into “ imitation ” The stage of .
The way to go in Vietnam , In fact, there is still a long, long . Vietnam's economic growth needs a pair of “ Sovereignty lies with me ” The wings of .
On social media , Recently about “ Whether made in Vietnam will replace made in China ” The topic is also quite hot .
One netizen said , Vietnam's current processing and manufacturing , Many focus on final assembly , Among them, the production of key parts depends on China ; In some application level debugging , There is also a shortage of skilled local workers in Vietnam . Netizens further believe that , Vietnam has so far faced the imperfection of basic heavy industry 、 The reality that the whole category industrial system is not perfect . Then it is worth asking ： What Vietnamese enterprises are undertaking now is the transfer of industrial chain , Or specific production links （ Such as manufacturing industry, tail industry ） The transfer of ？
It is worth mentioning that , After all, China and Vietnam have different stages of development . Vietnam's manufacturing industry is too strong in China , This is like a teacher who has experienced the Jianghu for a long time , Skill is better than a fledgling young man , This is a natural thing , We don't have to be complacent about it , Even complacent . contrary , Vietnam's labor cost advantage , It is a profile of the economic development of many Southeast Asian countries in recent years .
“ Will Vietnam be the next China ？” This problem should be extended to include Thailand 、 Myanmar 、 Laos 、 Kampuchea, etc. “ Southeast Asia team ” The concern of collective rise , This is not to remind us , We should turn the demographic dividend into a talent dividend , Improve the hard power of technology and the ability to create and innovate ？
From this point of view ,“ Sino Vietnamese manufacturing competition ” Again, it's just one aspect of the problem , Don't generalize .
China and Vietnam compete , More cooperation . China will not and does not need to cook like some countries “ China threat theory ” So credulous about the so-called Vietnam threat . The development of market economy in Vietnam and even Southeast Asia , Will promote the progress of these countries , Improve the living standards of local people , This is what China wants to see . China's development just wants the Chinese people to live a better life , Not to challenge or replace some countries , We will not because of the economic development of some countries , Think of them as “ The putative foe ”. The Chinese people are also willing to make friends with countries with peaceful development .
This is a great country , And the mind of the people she conceived that has not changed for thousands of years .
For Chinese companies , The development of manufacturing industry in Vietnam and other countries 、 The increase in disposable income of residents , Will make both brands 、 Chinese products with technological and price advantages are expected to further develop their potential market . This means that even if Vietnam makes a rise , Not necessarily bad news . To some extent, this is a spur ： In the developed countries in Europe and America, the industrial chain returns , The moment when the demographic dividend of developing countries in East and Southeast Asia takes off , We should take the initiative to give up taking doctrine 、 Relying on foreign countries and other unrealistic fantasies , Pursue the leading power of manufacturing industry development .
This article is from WeChat official account. “ Guanwang finance ”（ID:tiequanhe）, author ： Zhou Yi ,36 Krypton authorized release .
author[36kr],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.
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