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What will the museum look like in the future?

2022-05-08 01:21:59If

 What will museums look like in the future ?


5 month 18 Today is the 45th International Museum Day . This year's theme is “ The future of museums —— Restoration and remodeling ”, Call on museums around the world to explore digitization and create new cultural experience and communication modes , Pay attention to the new direction of museum development 、 A new model 、 New scheme .

Where is the Future Museum , What does it look like ? Digitization brings imaginative answers .“ the 14th Five-Year Plan ” The plan outlines ,“ Promote public libraries 、 Cultural Center 、 Art Gallery 、 Free opening and digital development of public cultural venues such as museums .” In recent years , The museum industry is speeding up hand in hand with digitization , Cultural relics protection research projects , With the help of the Internet, we have narrowed the distance from the public ; Pieces of precious cultural relics move online , Bring people a refreshing experience ; Museum Images IP Development , Integrate history and culture into daily life . The museum ascends the cloud and goes online , Show great potential , The future of digital transformation of museums is expected .

—— Ed person

Exhibits “ live ” get up

Digital exhibition improves the audience experience

“ once , The museum is walled , The exhibition is toured in the form of physical objects .” Zhu Yarong, deputy curator of Sanxingdui Museum in Guanghan, Sichuan, said , Digitization blurs the boundaries of museums , Thanks to advanced technology ,“ Cloud ” Exhibition viewing has become the norm , The exhibition goes to different cities with the help of Technology , The museum really realized “ Everywhere ”.

Walk into the Sanxingdui Museum complex after transformation and upgrading , vivid 、 Rich multimedia technology is more comprehensive 、 More deeply express the cultural connotation of Sanxingdui . In the prelude Hall , multimedia “ Eye of Sanxingdui ” Outline the key nodes of Sanxingdui discovery ; In the main hall ,L The video wall presents the formation process of Sanxingdui ancient city with realistic three-dimensional animation , Attract many viewers to stop and watch . According to introducing , These multimedia videos are produced at the movie level , The last three-dimensional rendering link uses 70 Multiple computers work at the same time .

Three or two friends get together , Enjoy flowers and tea 、 Play the piano and chess …… Open the online exhibition hall of Hunan Provincial Museum , Get into 《 Take time to be elegant —— The mirror image of slow life in the Song Dynasty 》 project , Accompanied by guqin music , The life scene of literati and refined scholars in the Song Dynasty slowly unfolded . The exhibition went online in the second half of last year , Application AR、VR、 3D image making 、 Multimedia information technology, etc , Made 360 Degree panoramic online virtual exhibition hall , Omnidirectional three-dimensional presentation 80 More than cultural relics .

If digital technology can be used as a supplement to physical exhibitions , So what's it like to see an exhibition without physical relics ?“ shock !”“ It's cool !”“ As if through !” last year 9 month ,“ Internet + Chinese civilization ” The digital experience exhibition was held in the Capital Museum , Surprise people everywhere : Use your hand to dial the to add the interactive password “ Guqin ”, a song 《 Guangling powder 》 Flowing between your fingers ; With people's actions , It was unearthed from Mawangdui Han tomb in Changsha “ Plain yarn clothes ” rise and dance in a happy mood …… At the experience exhibition site , A retired teacher who brought his children to the exhibition said :“ The combination of science and technology and culture makes the exhibition entertaining , Increase children's understanding and love of traditional culture .”

“ Internet age , Museums should actively use digital technology and Internet thinking to plan 、 organization 、 Promotion exhibition .” Sun Ruiying, director of the information resource management and Publishing Department of the capital museum, said . Different from traditional exhibitions , Digital exhibition breaks through time, space and region , Use interactive display means 、 Open knowledge exploration mode , Let the audience begin to be enlightening in the vivid digital exhibits 、 Experiential “ roaming ” The journey .

For Museums ,5G It is an important opportunity for digital transformation .“ Depending on the 5G Technical advantages of , Museums can achieve better and efficient public services 、 More immersive viewing effect 、 Richer and diversified social education experience and building a more professional and open scientific research platform ,‘ The Museum of wisdom ’ Transform from concept to reality .” Li Tao, an engineer of the information resource management and Publishing Department of the capital museum, said , At present, the base station wiring of the main building of the Capital Museum has been completed , Realization 5G Signal full coverage .

Details of restored cultural relics

3D acquisition helps protect and repair

in fact , It is recognized in the industry that the technology of digital transformation of museums has been generally mature , Digital acquisition is only the first step , Digital application and protection is another difficult problem .“ Content is king , How to make knowledge 、 for entertainment 、 Interactivity is well combined , It is the next breakthrough direction of museum development .” Zhu Yarong thinks so .

The Palace Museum released 5 A digital cultural relics library with more than 10000 high-definition cultural relics images 、 The capital museum is online APP Present digital cultural relics 、 Sanxingdui opens online 3D Exhibition Hall …… In recent years , The digitization of cultural relics has gradually taken root in the museum industry , Many museums have launched three-dimensional digital collection work .

At first glance, the whole data acquisition process is not complicated : Technicians use a three-dimensional laser scanner 、 HD cameras and other devices collect cultural relics data , Then through data modeling , Build a three-dimensional model of the whole cultural relic .

However ,“ To truly restore the historical state and appearance of cultural relics , Need high-precision data .” Zhu Yarong introduced , Take the bronze sacred tree in Sanxingdui Museum as an example , Because it's huge , Divided into dozens of pieces, segmented scanning and splicing , The scanning of this cultural relic alone took more than a month 、 Data processing took half a year .

Fine digital acquisition , It is often possible to highly recover every piece of debris and even the details of cultural relics , Therefore, it has become an important reference for the restoration of cultural relics .

Guqin is a form of instrumental music in Chinese history , Its shape and paint color broken lines have high aesthetic value , Inscribed on the body of the Qin are the inscriptions of the Qin people of all dynasties , Also for art 、 calligraphy 、 Provide materials for textual research such as Literature . However , Most of the ancient Qin handed down today have been damaged to varying degrees , Conservation and restoration are essential for research and Exhibition .

Wang Yifei is the director of the scientific research, editing and Publishing Department of Hunan Museum , At the same time, he is also the head of the Guqin protection and restoration research team . He introduced , Hunan Provincial Museum has a collection of ancient Qin 53 Zhang . In the process of protecting and repairing Guqin , The museum has set up a conservation and restoration research team , Application CT scanning 、 3D reconstruction and 3D Printing and other technologies , Minimal intervention and effective protection in repair .

Tang Qin “ Feiquan ” For example , Na Yin seems to be made of Tung wood , can CT The scan revealed , It turns out that its panel is made of fir , Nayin is pasted and inlaid . After scanning , The restorer will use the three-dimensional data of Guqin , Three dimensional reconstruction of the missing part of the structure , Virtual repair first , Then repair the body , To increase the accuracy of the repair .

Hunan Provincial Museum from 2016 At the end of the year, we began to prepare for the protection and restoration project of the ancient Qin collection ,2018 Since the start of the project in , Established by the cultural relics protection 、 Materials Science 、 Cultural relics and Museology 、 A research team for the protection and restoration of ancient Qin in the collection composed of multidisciplinary professional technicians such as intangible cultural heritage protection and art design , For the internal structure of the collection of Guqin 、 Chronology 、 Naming 、 Spread experience, etc. have new discoveries .

Digital acquisition is a long process , It's expensive . Li Tao thinks , The digitization of museum is first of all the digitization of collection information and exhibition display , On this basis , Through various multimedia display forms , Let the audience get rich digital experience . At present, Shoubo urgently needs to deeply explore the collection , This is a process that requires continuous investment and renewal .

Insight into cultural relics “ Life experience ”

Digital technology is used in archaeological excavation

Most of the exhibits in the museum come from archaeological sites . Now , The relationship between cultural relics exhibits and digital technology , It has been opened as early as the archaeological excavation site .

“ The ongoing excavation of Sanxingdui site , Whether from multidisciplinary research or archaeological excavation methods and technologies , Are at the forefront of World Archaeology , It can be used as a model of Chinese Archaeology in the new era .”5 month 16 Japan , The Chinese Archaeological Society sent a congratulatory letter to the newly established Sichuan archaeological society , Wrote .

The archaeological excavation of Sanxingdui “ Science and Technology ” Cause widespread concern , Digital technology is embodied in the excavation of cultural relics 、 All aspects of extraction .

Walk into the modern shed built at the archaeological excavation site of Sanxingdui site , I can only see around 6 A glass shelter with constant temperature and humidity , Arrange multiple archaeological Laboratories : Emergency protection room for inorganic cultural relics 、 Emergency detection and analysis room 、 Micro trace emergency protection room …… In the next meeting room , The large screen occupying the whole wall shows the situation in the archaeological greenhouse in real time .“ Each excavation pit is equipped with 24 24-hour continuous shooting system , All data collected and recorded shall be stored centrally , It is a precious material for future archaeological research .” President of Sichuan Academy of cultural relics and Archaeology 、 Tang Fei, the general leader of the archaeological excavation of Sanxingdui site .

The excavation site was moved into the laboratory , Archaeological technology has also achieved many firsts . In the experiment , A white silicone cover in the shape of bronze is placed on the table , This is tailored for the newly discovered bronze statue 3D Print “ Protective clothing ”. original , Bronze Zunqi is large , Take the traditional gypsum fixed extraction fragile . therefore , The team starts with 3D The scanner collects cultural relics data , And then 3D Make silicone protective cover on the printed model , Put on the cultural relics and then extract . Tang Fei said :“3D Printing technology used to be widely used in the restoration of cultural relics , But it is the first time to use it in archaeological excavation , Realize the innovation of technology application .”

It is worth mentioning that , The archaeology also applied hyperspectral data acquisition and analysis for the first time , To identify the material composition of the surface of cultural relics .“ Hyperspectral technology is generally used for remote sensing satellites . For cultural relics , Different materials have different responses to electromagnetic waves of different wavelengths , Spectral scanning of the surface of the excavation pit , You can predict the material of cultural relics .” In the field laboratory , Yang Ruijie, a researcher at Xi'an Institute of Optics and mechanics, demonstrated the data analysis equipment ,“ Like bronze 、 The spectral performance of ivory and silk fabrics is different , It's just black to the naked eye ‘ Clod ’ The material , It can be seen at a glance under the scanning of hyperspectral imager .” According to introducing , The of this excavation 4 In pit No , Some remnants of silk products were found like this .

( source : The People's Daily )

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