current position:Home>Why is the next hot spot in the game of great powers the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Why is the next hot spot in the game of great powers the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

2022-09-23 06:18:38Loufan Portal

8月24日到26日,NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg makes first visit to Canadian Arctic,And with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to the Northern Warning System Radar Station in Cambridge Bay, Canada、High Latitude Arctic Research Station, etc.,Also watched the Canadian Arctic military exercise live.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

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NATO's move immediately drew close attention from Russia,Russian Federation Council Deputy Chairman Kosachev believes that NATO is entering the Arctic region.

China ocean university political science professor Guo Peiqing:

“Either NATO or the United States,They put forward an important reason for strengthening the Arctic military presence and strengthening the Arctic military capabilities,is to meet the challenges from Russia and China.”

NATO also did not shy away from the intention of this visit at all.Stoltenberg says Russian force in Arctic“A strategic challenge to the entire alliance”,NATO must strengthen northern security to counter Russia.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Russia's power in the Arctic is causing deep concern for NATO,Russian military expert Khram Chikhin confirmed that Russia's military power in the Arctic currently exceeds that of all NATO countries combined.为此,The arms race targeting the Arctic has escalated.早在今年6月,Canadian Defence Minister Anand announces future6年将投入近50亿加元,约合260亿人民币,To upgrade the defense system of the North American Air Defense Command, which is jointly formed by the United States and Canada.

Researcher, Institute of International Studies, Shandong University Chu Zhiyong:

“To strengthen the strategic advantage against Russia in all aspects,Because the improvement of my defensive ability means the weakening of your offensive ability.”

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Observers note NATO leaders set foot in the North Pole for the first time,It's not just Russia,And the practical cooperation between China and Russia in the Arctic.At the same time, the United States is also gearing up,US State Department Spokesperson Patel8月26日宣布:Secretary of State Blinken to appoint one“Arctic Ambassador Nowhere”,Responsible with other Arctic Circle countries、Aboriginal and stakeholder engagement.

Researcher, Institute of International Studies, Shandong University Chu Zhiyong:

“In fact, in the past, the United States paid insufficient attention and investment to the Arctic strategy.,Of the eight Arctic littoral countries,In fact, only the United States has not established an Arctic ambassador.”

American troops have aimed at the North Pole.US Army this year6月6Japan restarts World War II-era first in Alaska11空降师,After years of downsizing Alaska's garrison,Senator Sullivan of Alaska:“This represents the Pentagon's renewed focus on the Arctic Ocean.”


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

NATO and Russia wrestle around the North Pole is in in more ways.U.S. House of Representatives this year2月通过“美国竞争法案”.which mentions that the United States will“Promoting Taiwan to become an observer to the Arctic Council”for policy.6Taiwan announced the establishment of the so-called“first arctic research station”.

Researcher, Institute of International Studies, Shandong University Chu Zhiyong:

“Most of the observer states of the Arctic Council are sovereign states,It wants to bring Taiwan into such an organization,It implies the promotion of Taiwan's status(的意图).On the one hand, admitted to the one China policy commitment remains the same,On the one hand, and in effect relations with Taiwan upgrade various official.Dual-track policy,Blur the Taiwan Strait issue.

无独有偶,NATO is still attracting more countries around the Arctic Circle to encircle Russia more closely.今年5月,Finland, Sweden formally apply to join NATO,Ring of the Arctic Circle8China will soon contain a non-NATO member in Russia.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

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Russia is also pushing for countermeasures.7月31日,Putin signs new bill on Russian Navy Day“The Russian navy strategic guidelines”,Designates the U.S. as Russia's main adversary,and articulates Russia's ambitions to exert influence on the world's oceans.He says Russia has the military to defeat any potential aggressor.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Except for military confrontation,Political wrangling over the Arctic is also in full swing.今年3月3日,United States and Canada, etc.7The said,Will suspend participation in all meetings of the Arctic Council and its subsidiary bodies.由8of the Arctic Circle countries“Arctic Council”It's at a standstill.6月,这7China also announced that it will resume work on projects without Russian participation.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

China ocean university political science professor Guo Peiqing:

“The Arctic Council is already divided,Or that Arctic governance is already divided.”

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Why the Arctic is fast becoming the new regional hotspot?Arctic is located in Asia、欧、North America three continents junction,Greenland、加拿大、美国阿拉斯加、俄罗斯、挪威、瑞典、Eight countries surrounded by Finland and Iceland,U.S.-Russian fighter jet、导弹、The shortest path for nuclear submarines to attack each other.同时,The Arctic Ocean's perennial ice sheet that is several meters thick,Provides a natural hiding place for strategic nuclear submarines.因此,The Arctic is a strategic deterrent between major powers、Key areas for early warning and defense.

不仅如此,The Arctic region is also rich in resource reserves.According to estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey,The Arctic holds the world30%Undeveloped natural gas and13%untapped oil.俄罗斯副总理亚历山大·Novak in2020年曾表示,Russia's oil and gas resources will not be exhausted anytime soon,Offshore Arctic resources alone include150billion tons of oil and approximately100万亿立方米天然气,can last for decades or even centuries.

有统计显示,2016-2020Over the years, the financial industry has provided more than3140亿美元的资金.《华尔街日报》Also known as the Arctic holds value1trillion dollar rare earth metals.Some scholars predict that Arctic resources will be15Years later, it may be able to control the global energy situation.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

与此同时,Glacier melting due to global warming,水位上涨,After unable to cross the channel in the future of the arctic is about to open business、Cargo and Military Vessel Passage.至此,The Arctic has been pushed to a new stage for global economic and trade exchanges.

China ocean university political science professor Guo Peiqing:

One of the characteristics of the countries around the Arctic is that they are either rich or strong,As Arctic sea ice melts,Emergence of the New Northern Civilization,Northward shift of industry,It is not ruled out that a future‘The Arctic Circle’.”


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

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The Arctic has long been considered a“realpolitik”exception area,Under the strong domination of international politics by the competitive thinking of realism,The arctic once maintained peace and stability.

But the game of related countries in the Arctic region already exists.The geologic value of the Arctic during WWII has begun to emerge.As the U.S.-Russian Cold War begins,Countries around the North Pole confrontation gradually.

Researcher, Institute of International Studies, Shandong University Chu Zhiyong:

“在苏联时期,The Soviet Union's attitude toward the United States was also very tough,Including such as Norway's fishing boat into Norway with the Soviet union the disputed waters,The measures taken in the Soviet union is buckle ship arrest people.The Soviet Union had such a home-field advantage in the Arctic.”

1991年6the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union,Eight Arctic nations sign in Rovaniemi, Finland《Arctic Environmental Protection Declaration》,The arctic overall situation tends to ease.

2017年,特朗普签署的《国家安全战略》The whole chapter emphasizes“美国优先”Coreism and U.S. Individual Interests in the Arctic.而2019In the pentagon《Arctic strategy》clearly defined China、Russia is defined as the strategic rivals in the arctic.

Professor, Center for Polar and Ocean International Studies, Tongji University Wang Chuanxing:

“2017The Trump administration's national security strategy was introduced,Completely subverted the national security strategic goals of the United States after the end of the Cold War.”

2018年10月,NATO holds largest joint military exercise since Cold War in Norway,31国参加,Covering the Baltic Sea to Iceland,as far as the Russian border.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Russia is located in northern Eurasia,north of the arctic ocean,The full length of its Arctic Ocean coastline22600公里,About two-thirds of the total length of the Arctic Ocean coastline.The land area of ​​the Russian Arctic is even more340万平方公里,of its total territorial area19.9%.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Beijing normal university, vice President of the institute of political science and international relations 张胜军:

“Russia is still strong,Russia's confidence lies in the fact that it is the first to operate in the Arctic.它从18polar expeditions,And continue to use the Arctic as its security bulwark.”

Formation of the Northern Fleet in Soviet times,And gradually expanded to become the largest and most powerful naval fleet among the four major fleets of the Soviet Union..直到当前,The activities of the northern fleet kept covering the whole of the Arctic Circle.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

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然而,Glacier melting due to global warming,Or bring new security risks to Russia.

Beijing normal university, vice President of the institute of political science and international relations 张胜军:

“Because past sea ice has not melted,it doesn't have to worry about an invasion from the north,Now as the sea ice melts,Russia could face an invasion from the north,This is Russia faces a new challenge in safety.”

In the snow-covered arctic ocean,Global warming causes sea ice to melt faster,The shrinking of the ice sheet has accelerated the warming.美国国家航空航天局 (NASA) 的数据显示,1981年到2010年期间,The average Arctic sea ice extent per10年至少减少13.1%.2020年6月20日,The temperature in the Russian town of Verkhoyansk on the Arctic Circle has reached38℃.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Beijing normal university, vice President of the institute of political science and international relations 张胜军:

“Positive feedbacks on climate change are most pronounced in the Arctic,The Arctic is also the most sensitive place to climate change.”

专家表示,The Arctic is twice as sensitive to climate change as other regions.The rate of acidification in the Arctic Ocean is faster than that of other regions4倍.Arctic permafrost contains considerable deterrent gas,一旦释放,Likely to exacerbate climate change tipping point.

“Gulf Stream”the fastest ocean current in the world,Is the climate of North America and Europe important regulating currents.Scientists warn polar ice melting due to global warming,including the Gulf StreamOcean circulation is on the verge of collapse,Once you break off,May cause the north Atlantic current is unable to be Western Europe and northern Europe,There is a good chance that the whole of Europe will be frozen like in the movies,and spread to the world.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

China ocean university political science professor Guo Peiqing:

“If this loop is broken,Then the European and Western European countries will enter the severe cold.到今天为止,All plumbing etc. to be completely rebuilt,Europe and even in some places are not suitable for human survival.

冰川的融化,resulting in the emergence of new routes to the north,It will undoubtedly bring new opportunities for the development of the Arctic region..The Northern Route is mainly divided into routes passing through the waters near the Canadian Arctic Islands.“西北航道”and via the northern coast of Siberia, Russia“Northeast Passage”.Same as the shortest path of missiles in the air,they connect the Atlantic and the Pacific、It is also the shortest route by sea in Asia and Europe.


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

Researcher, Institute of International Studies, Shandong University Chu Zhiyong:

“main sea line of communication it is not just economical,It is strategic,For example, the in and out of some strategic materials,the economic security of the country,Then control the sea lanes like this,Is a means to control the Angle of the national economic security has become.”

2018年,Putin pointed out in his State of the Union address to the Federal Parliament,The Northern Sea Route will be the key to the development of the Russian Arctic and Far East.Russia will strive to make it a truly globally competitive transport trunk.到2024The annual cargo flow of the Northern Sea Route will reach8000万吨,At the same time in China2018White paper released in arctic policy,also proposed“极地丝绸之路”计划.

China ocean university political science professor Guo Peiqing:

“China is not an Arctic country,但是China has major interests in the Arctic,China's economy relies heavily on international channel security,The opening of the Arctic waterway undoubtedly provides a new option for China's sea passage.”


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

However, as the new north channel shows enormous economic benefits continuously,It also made Western countries headed by the United States and China and Russia confront each other again..

Arctic hegemony,北极开发,Arctic governance.The world's interests in the Arctic vary,Countries have different development goals in the Arctic.Humanity's every move in the Arctic,However, it always has an irreversible and far-reaching impact on this ice field..

Beijing normal university, vice President of the institute of political science and international relations 张胜军:

“在北极地区,If we bring in some behavioral logic outside the domain,will seriously damage the future of the planet,甚至人类的未来,You can keep the human pay the price.”


The next hot spot of big game,Why is it the coldest place on earth?|Phoenix Focus

制片人:Ke Zhongping

编导:YueMengYing

编辑:Ding Xiao

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